Transcripts

National Gallery Exhibit Highlights How Ballets Russes Revolutionized Dance

MS. REBECCA SHEIR

00:00:03
Now, of course, if you wanted to visit the wood lot today, you'd need a very fancy time machine. But to see what's happening at the National Gallery of Art right now, we turn to someone equally fancy, NPR's Susan Stamberg, a regular contributor to the show.

MS. REBECCA SHEIR

00:00:17
She recently visited a new exhibition at the National Gallery, one that highlights the huge and initially scandalous impact a group of dancers, composers, artists and choreographers made on classical dance at the start of the 20th century. The exhibit is called "Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes."

MS. SUSAN STAMBERG

00:00:34
Silver and red sketches for costumes, gold and pearl-encrusted princely robes, a flat curtain conceived by Picasso, the Russian dance appears in all its glory in this exhibition, plus there's music and films of various ballets. This film clip shows the most famous and controversial Ballets Russes dance, "The Rite of Spring."

MS. SARAH KENNEL

00:00:59
Now the young men and women are coupled up and they're stamping on the ground. It's almost like a prehistoric version of "Riverdance."

STAMBERG

00:01:10
Curator Sarah Kennel says it was scandalous in its day, 1913, so 100 years old this year. Choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky, music by Igor Stravinsky.

KENNEL

00:01:23
"The Rite of Spring" was something completely different, rhythmically so complex, tonally so difficult. And then on top of that, Nijinksy's choreography was just baffling to audiences. Here was Nijinsky, one of the greatest dancers in the world and he was forcing his dancers to stamp, to turn in, to jump up and down. Their movement was so difficult and strange, it was the antithesis of everything that ballet had ever been.

STAMBERG

00:01:55
No tutus? No gracefully lifted legs? No lighter than air leaps? Sacre bleu.

KENNEL

00:02:02
There was a riot on opening night. Some people felt that they had been insulted. That they came to see the ballet and what they got was mud pie thrown in the face.

STAMBERG

00:02:14
No surprise the original was performed just nine times in Paris. But the buzz delighted the person who was responsible for the entire, shocking production. He was an impresario, a producer, what would you call Sergei Diaghilev?

KENNEL

00:02:32
We might want to call him a cultural entrepreneur. He was also an opportunist. He had a great nose for talent. He was very well cultured himself. He had extensive training as a musician but his teacher essentially told him he didn't have enough talent.

STAMBERG

00:02:49
So in love with the arts, Diaghilev presented Russian artists in concerts and operas in Paris with funding from the czar, for a while, anyway.

KENNEL

00:03:00
The step from opera to ballet happened suddenly when that money was yanked away. And ballet, of course, was much less expensive than opera to produce.

STAMBERG

00:03:09
Fine, do ballet. But Diaghilev wanted to get beyond the imperial court dance traditions, the classical tutus and such.

KENNEL

00:03:17
He had seen Isadora Duncan dance in St. Petersburg.

STAMBERG

00:03:21
Duncan was an American, her movements were natural, loose, modern.

KENNEL

00:03:25
And that freedom of movement, the idea that movement comes from within the body and is expressed through the entire body, not just hands and feet, was very influential.

STAMBERG

00:03:36
Diaghilev knew some Russian choreographers and dancers were also eager for something new. In 1909, he cabled a theater manager in France with his pitch.

KENNEL

00:03:46
"I'm bringing over the best ballet company in the world, lots of evenings of three performances a night, get ready."

STAMBERG

00:03:52
By 1911, the company was based in Paris and touring the world.

STAMBERG

00:04:00
The National Gallery Ballets Russes show is subtitled "When Art Danced With Music" because the most avant garde artists designed the sets and costumes. Picasso created cubist jackets, Henri Matisse a tinseled, yellow satin robe and Chanel, she did little wool bathing suits for one dance and was a patron.

STAMBERG

00:04:21
The Ballets Russes became the thing to see and the real magnet, the one who kept the seats full, was a dancer and choreographer named Vaslav Nijinsky.

KENNEL

00:04:33
Where to begin?

STAMBERG

00:04:34
Well, he was gorgeous, blazing dark eyes, fabulous cheekbones and that body, a major star.

KENNEL

00:04:42
Nijinsky was an incredible talent. He was technically very well trained. He was incredibly strong. He could jump in the air, seemingly able to stay there. The story is that somebody asked him once, "How do you jump so high?" And he said, "It's simple. You just jump up there and wait a little while."

STAMBERG

00:05:01
Nijinsky was worshiped by men, it was a moment when gay culture became visible in Paris, and by women who got the chance to really look at men and be seduced by what they saw. Slithering sensuously, having his way with a scarf to Debussy's "Afternoon of a Faun," Nijinsky's choreography scandalized Parisians who thought the movements were just wrong.

KENNEL

00:05:26
Some people said, "Well, he's Russian. He just can't understand our French music."

STAMBERG

00:05:31
Nijinsky spoke with his body and as dancer and choreographer created a universal language. Curator Sarah Kennel says Nijinsky and company represented one of the great turning points, not just in ballet, but in modern culture.

KENNEL

00:05:48
"The Ballets Russes" transformed the future of ballet in the West and really in the world by bringing dancers with great traditional training to look at modern forms of movement, great music and bringing music and design and dance together into a cohesive whole.

STAMBERG

00:06:07
"Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, 1909-1929: When Art Danced With Music" at the National Gallery in Washington through early September. D.C. is its only U.S. venue. Lavish, colorful, seductive, shocking, it's a show that quickens the imagination not to mention the blood.

SHEIR

00:06:28
That was NPR's Susan Stamberg. Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes is at the National Gallery of Art through September 2nd. You can find images from the exhibit on our website, metroconnection.org.
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