In the District, vouchers are used to subsidize private school tuition for needy students and is the only such program to receive federal funds.
Congress began phasing it out two years ago, but Republican House Speaker John Boehner, who attended Catholic schools, is sponsoring the bill.
It would increase the annual subsidy to up to $12,000 per student. The Obama administration and many D.C. officials oppose the measure.
Mayor Vincent Gray says that it distracts from efforts to improve public schools and stands as another congressional imposition into local affairs.
While the bill passed in the House, it's chances in the Senate, where Democrats oppose the program, are less clear.